Unit10 Text A E-business Legal Essentials
电子商务法律要素
legal adj.与法律有关的;法律的;合法的;法律允许的;法律要求的;
essential n.要点;要素

Success in e-business can evaporate even more quickly than it is achieved.Continued success demands protecting valuable assets.Legal counsel should play a substantive role in the way that business is conducted and the external environment in which it opterates.Much can be done to create a new and effective legal environment for e-business transactions.
电子商务成功的蒸发的速度可能比达到的速度更快。持续的成功需要保护有价值的资产。法律顾问应该在业务的运作方式和它所处的外部环境中发挥实质性的作用。为电子商务交易创建一个新的、有效的法律环境,可以做很多事情。
evaporate v.(使)蒸发,挥发;(逐渐)消失,消散,衰减;
demand n.(坚决的)要求;所需之物;(尤指困难、使人劳累、令人烦劳等的)要求;(顾客的)需求,需要;v.强烈要求;需要
valuable adj.很有用的;很重要的;宝贵的;很值钱的;贵重的;n.贵重物品;财报
asset n.有价值的人(或事物);有用的人(或事物);资产;财产;
counsel n.(尤指年长者或专家的)劝告,忠告,建议;法律顾问;律师;v.提供专业咨询;建议,劝告(做某事)
substantive adj.实质性的;本质上的;重大的;严肃认真的;n.名词
play a role in:在……中起作用
conduct v.组织;安排;实施;执行;指挥(歌唱或音乐演奏);带领;引导;为(某人)导游;n.(人在某地或某种情况下的)行为,举止;经营方式;管理方法;实施办法
external adj.外部的;外面的;外界的;外来的;在外的;来自(学校或机构)以外的;n.外部;外面;外观;外部情况

Legal counsel can help secure the e-business environment by conducting the following activities:
法律顾问可以通过以下活动帮助保护电子商务环境:
secure adj.安心的;有把握的;可靠的;牢靠的;稳固的;安全的;稳妥的;v.(尤指经过努力)获得,取得,实现;拴牢;扣紧;关严;保护;保卫;使安全;

Structure contracts to effectively handle e-business issues.Develop contracts that redefine the nature(性质) of the business activity,structure and cement alliances,and provide new mechanisms for resolving disputes outside the courtroom.
构建有效处理电子商务问题的合同。制定合同,重新定义商业活动、结构和巩固联盟的性质,并为解决庭外争端提供新机制。
structure n.结构;构造;结构体;(尤指)建筑物;精心组织;周密安排;体系;v.使形成体系;系统安排;静心组织
contract n.合同;和月;契约;(雇佣杀人的)协议;v.(使)收缩,缩小;感染(疾病);得病;与……订立合同(或契约)
develop contract
cement v.加强,巩固
alliance n.结盟,同盟,联盟
mechanism n.机械装置;机件;方法;机制;(生物体内的)机制;构造;
resolve v.解决,下决心,决定
dispute n.争论,争端,纠纷
courtroom n.法庭,审判室
outside courtroom 法庭外

Address risks that arise from changes in the environment.Counsel can address risks and vulnerabilities that arise from changes in the technical,business and legal environments.Such changes might include the development of new payment technology,changes in liability laws and enactment of protection laws in specific countries.
解决环境变化带来的风险。法律顾问可以处理由于技术、商业和法律环境的变化而产生的风险和伤害。这些变化可能包括发展新的支付技术、改变义务法以及在特定国家制定保护法律。
arise v.发生,产生,出现;(由……)引起;(因……)产生;发展
vulnerability n.弱点,易受攻击之处
liability n.责任,义务,债务
enactment n.(法律的)制定,通过

Influence the shape of new legislation.Governments have consistently been willing to modify legislative proposals following representations from business.Counsel can play a major part here,both in identifying the legal changes that are required and in enabling the enterprise to support its argument.
影响新法律的形成。各国政府一直愿意根据企业的陈述修改立法提案。法律顾问可以在这里扮演重要的角色,既可以确定所需的法律变更,也可以使企业支持其论点。
influence n.影响;作用;支配力;控制力;影响力;有影响的人(或事物);v.影响;对……起作用;支配;左右
shape n.形状;外形;样子;呈……形状的事物;模糊的影子;状况;情况;v.使成为……形状(或样子);塑造;决定……的形成;影响……的发展;准备(做某动作);摆好姿势;
legislation n.法律;法规;立法;制定法律
legislative adj.立法的;有关立法的;有立法权的;
consistently adv.一贯地,坚持地;
modify v.调整;稍作修改;使更适合;缓和;使温和;修饰;
proposal n.提议;建议;动议;求婚;
representation n.表现;描述;描绘;表现形式;有代理人;代表;维护;支持;陈述;抗议;
major adj.主要的;重要的;大的;严重;大调的;v.主修;专攻;n.少校;主修课程;专业课;主修学生;主修生;
identify v.确认;认出;鉴定;找到;发现;显示;说明身份;
enabling v.使能够;使有机会;使成为可能;使可行;使实现;
argument n.论据;论点;讨论;争吵;

In conducting the activities above,nine legal essentials (shown in the graphic on next page) need to be addressed to assure success.Since the essentials relate to one another in complex ways,embracing the legal fundamentals from the outset can strengthen the e-business corporate endeavor.
在开展上述活动时,需要解决9项法律要点(见下页图表),以确保成功。由于这些要素以复杂的方式相互关联,从一开始就考虑到这些基本的法律问题可以使电子商务公司的工作更有成效。
above prep.在(或向)……上面;(数目、数量、水平、年龄)超过,多于,大于;(重要性、质量)超过,胜过;adv.在(或向)上面;在(或向)较高处;(数量、数目、水平、年龄)超过,更多,更大;上文;前文;adj.前文述及的;上述的;
relate v.联系;使有联系;把……联系起来;叙述;讲述;讲(故事);
embrace v.欣然接受;拥抱;
fundamental n.基本原理,基本法则
outset n.开始,开端
strengthen v.加强;增强;巩固;
corporate adj.公司的;组成公司(或团体)的;法人的;社团的;全体的;团体的;
endeavor n.努力;尝试

E-business Structuring
电子商务架构的形成

E-business is not just traditional business being conducted online.Many of the benefits of e-business can be secured only with a radical rethinking of the way in which the organization operates.Numerous variables,such as logistics and location,must be determined when developing the optimum e-business structuring plan.
电子商务不仅仅是在网上进行的传统业务。电子商务的许多好处只有在对组织运作方式的彻底反思中才能得到保证。在开发最优的电子商务结构计划时,必须确定许多变量,如物流和位置。
radical adj.根本的;基本的;彻底的;激进的;
rethinking v.重新考虑
rethink v.重新考虑
numerous adj.很多的,许多的,数不清的;
variable n.可变因素;变量,易变的东西;
logistics n.物流,后勤;
determine v.查明;测定;准确算出;决定;形成;支配;影响;确定;裁定;安排;
optimum adj.最适宜的;最优的;

The organization must be analyzed strategically to determine if it should be restructured into a group of companies situated in defferent jurisdictions.This may enable it to take advantage of local laws that are particularly favorable to individual activities,or to protect business assets against liability.
必须对该组织进行战略性的分析,以确定它是否需要重组成在不同管辖区域设立公司的公司集团。这可能使它能够利用特别有利于个人活动的当地法律,或保护企业资产免受负债。
strategically adv.战略上地;战略性地;
situate v.使位于;使处于……地位(或位置)
restructure v.调整结构;改组;重建;
jurisdiction n.司法权,管辖权,管辖区域;
enable v.使能够;使有机会;使成为可能;使可行;使实现;
take advantage of 利用
particularly adv.尤其;特别;
favorable adj.赞同的;称赞的;有利的;讨人喜欢的;
individual adj.单独的;个别的;一个人的;供一个人用的;独特的;与众不同的;n.个人;与众不同的人;有个性的人;某种类型的人;(尤指)古怪的人;
liability n.责任,义务,债务;
against prep.反对;与……相反;逆;违反;对……不利;紧靠;倚;碰;撞;
a group of companies 公司集团

Logistics is crucial to the venture.Operating in new markets requires a local base for delivering products,services and customer contact.As locations are selected for commercial value,legal considerations should also be taken into account.Legal input will determine if there are limitations on cross-ownership or requirements to register with a supervisory authority and will help overcome these barriers.It is just as important to find a venue that is well-suited for legal regulatory and tax regimes as it is to find one that is well-suited for transportation,distribution marketing and human resources.
物流对企业至关重要。在新市场运营需要一个本地基地来提供产品、服务和客户联系。由于地点是为商业价值而选择的,因此也应考虑到法律因素。法律投入将决定是否存在交叉持股的限制,或在监管机构注册的要求,并将有助于克服这些障碍。找到一个非常适合法律监管和税收制度的场所和找到一个非常适合运输、分销营销和人力资源的场所同样重要。
crucial adj.关键的;至关重要的;
venture n.(尤指有风险的)企业;商业;投机活动;经营项目;v.敢于去(危险或令人不快的地方);小心地说;谨慎的做(尤指会使人烦恼或不快的事);冒着(失去贵重或重要东西)的危险
delivering v.传送;递送;交付;运载;发布;宣布;发表;履行诺言;不负众望;兑现;
commercial adj.贸易的;商业的;赢利的;以获利为目的的;偏重利润和声望的;商业化的;n.(电台或电视播放的)广告;
consideration n.考虑,体贴;须考虑的因素;
take …… into account 考虑
input n.投入,投入物(指为某工作或活动提供的建议、资金等);
cross-ownership交叉持股,相互持股
register v.登记;注册;(正式或公开地)发表意见;提出主张;显示(读数);记录;n.登记表;注册簿;登记簿;声区;音区;(适合特定场合使用的)语体风格;语域;
supervisory adj.监督的;管理的;
authority n.权利;威权;当权(地位);权;职权;批准;授权;
overcome v.克服;解决;战胜;受到……的极大影响;
barrier n.屏障;障碍物;障碍;阻力;关卡;分界线;隔阂;
venue n.聚会地点(如音乐厅,体育比赛场馆,会场)
well-suited 非常合适;适当的;
regulatory adj.监管的,管理的;
regime n.管理制度;政权;政体;

Protection of Name and Reputation
保护姓名和名誉

Organizations that establish a strong reputation and brand loyalty in the marketplace create value based on attributes other than price.A strong brand results in fewer competitive entrants,marked product differentiation,less price sensitivity,and increased customer loyalty.To leave a brand unprotected and vulnerable is corporate suicide.On the Internet,a company’s name and reputation can be threatened in two ways:
在市场中建立良好声誉和品牌忠诚度的组织,基于价格以外的属性创造价值。一个强大的品牌会导致竞争对手更少,产品差异化,价格敏感度降低,客户忠诚度提高。让一个品牌失去保护变得脆弱是企业的自杀行为。在互联网上,一家公司的名字和声誉可能会受到两方面的威胁:
establish v.建立,创立,设立;建立(尤指正式关系);确立;使立足;使稳固;
reputation n.名誉,名声;
brand n.品牌;类型;烙印(尤指农场牲畜身上表示所属的印记);v.(尤指不公正的)丑化(某人);败坏(某人)名声;给(牲畜)打烙印;
loyalty n.忠诚;忠实;忠心耿耿;要忠于……的强烈感情;
loyal adj.忠诚的;忠实的;
attribute n.特性,特质,属性;
entrant n.参赛者,新加入者;
sensitivity n.敏感性,(仪器等的)灵敏性;
differentiation n.差异,区分,区别,辨别;
unprotect 不受保护;解除保护;取消保护;未保护;
vulnerable adj.易受攻击的;易受伤的;易受批评的
corporate adj.公司的;组成公司(或团体)的;法人的;社团的;全体的;共同的;
corporation n.公司,法人
suicide n.自杀;自杀性行为;自毁;自取灭亡的行为;自杀者;
threaten v.扬言要;威胁;恐吓;预示凶兆;有……危险;危及;对……构成威胁;
threat n.威胁;恐吓;凶兆;征兆;构成威胁的人;形成威胁的事物;

External threats.The legal aspects of trademarks,domain names,and other external threats must be considered to protect the name and reputation from harm.Trademarks are national,not global,so conflicts can be difficult to resolve.Domain names,on the other hand ,are both global and national,and these form an important element of online identity and reputation.
外部的威胁。必须考虑商标、域名和其他外部威胁的法律方面,以保护名称和声誉不受损害。商标是全国性的,而不是全球性的,所以冲突很难解决。另一方面,域名是全球性的和全国性的,这些都是网络身份和声誉的重要组成部分。
trademark n.商标,(人的行为或衣着等)特征,标记
harm n.&v.损害,伤害,危害
conflict n.冲突;争执;争论;(军事)冲突;战斗;抵触;矛盾;不一致;v.(两种思想、信仰、说法等)冲突,抵触;
important adj.重要的;有重大影响的;有巨大价值的;影响很大的;权威的;

Internal threats.Danger from within the corporation should not be discounted either.Such issues might include collecting and selling customer data,legal control of a Web site’s content and access to proprietary information and sabotage.
内部威胁。公司内部的危险也不应被忽视。这些问题可能包括收集和销售客户数据、对网站内容的法律控制以及对专有信息的访问和破坏。
danger n.危险;风险;(坏事或不快之事发生的)可能性;危险的人;危险因素;危害;威胁;
corporation n.公司,法人
corporate adj.公司的;组成公司(或团体)的;法人的;社团的;全体的;共同的;
discount n.折扣;v.认为……不重要;对……不全信;低估;打折;打折出售;
proprietary adj.专有的,专利的,(商品)专卖的;
sabotage n.蓄意破坏

Protection of Assets
保护资产

At the heart of any organization is its asset base.In the bricks-and-mortar environment,assets are clearly defined.In the e-business model,however,many assets consist of information—intangible,but possessing great value nonetheless.
任何组织的核心都是其资产基础。在实体环境中,资产是明确定义的。然而,在电子商务模型中,许多资产是由信息组成的——无形的,但仍然具有巨大的价值。
consist of 由……组成(构成);包括
intangible adj.难以形容(或理解)的;不易度量的;无形的(指没有实体存在的资本性资产);n.<商>(指企业资产)无形的;
记忆技巧:in 不 + tangible 可触摸的 → 不可触知的;
possess v.有;拥有;具有(特质);攫住;支配;控制;
nonetheless adv.尽管如此;虽然如此;但是;

Assets in cyberspace are much more vulnerable than physical assets,as their value can be reduced substantially—or lost forever—through copying,imitation or other forms of plagiarism.Information products are particularly at risk as they can instantly be disseminated worldwide.
网络空间的资产比实物资产更脆弱,因为它们的价值可以通过复制、模仿或其他形式的剽窃来大幅减少——或者永远消失。信息产品尤其面临风险,因为它们可以立即在全球范围内传播。
cyberspace n.网络空间;数字空间;计算机网络空间;
cyber adj.电脑(网络)的
vulnerable adj.(身体或感情上)脆弱的;易受……伤害的;
substantially adv.非常,大大地;基本上;大体上;总的来说;
imitation n.模仿;仿效;仿制品;赝品;
plagiarism n.剽窃,抄袭,剽窃物;抄袭物;
instantly adv.立刻;立即;马上;
disseminate v.散布;传播(知识、信息等);
记忆技巧:dis 加强 + semin 种子 +ate 表动词 → 散布

Customer information,know-how about methods of conducting e-business,and relationships with providers of information products and e-business services,all have real value and need to be protected from competitors.In addition to technical security,the legal initiative can enhance asset security through properly drawn agreements with employees,contractors and serivice providers.
客户信息、有关开展电子商务的方法的诀窍,以及与信息产品和电子商务服务提供商的关系,都具有真正的价值,需要受到保护,不受竞争对手的影响。除了技术安全之外,法律倡议还可以通过与雇员、承包商和系列服务提供者的适当协议来加强资产安全。
know-how n.诀窍,实用知识;专门技能;
in addition to 另外;加之;除……之外(还)
initiative n.倡议;新方案;主动性;积极性;自发性;掌握有利条件的能力(或机会);主动权;
enhance v.提高;增强;增进;
properly adv.正确地;适当地;得体地;恰当地;符合习俗地;真正地;实际上;
draw n.抽彩,抽奖,抽签;平局,和局,不分胜负;v.(用钢笔、铅笔、粉笔等)画,描绘,描画;拖(动);牵引,拉,拖(车);吸引;使感兴趣;
drawn 使draw的过去分词
agreement n.协议,协定,合同,同意,一致;
contractor n.承包人;承包商;

Assurance of Enforceable Transactions
可执行交易的保证
assurance n.保证,担保,(人寿)保险;
enforceable adj.可执行的;可强制执行的;

Because an e-business transaction does not always bind parties in the same manner as a traditional transaction,it is important to ensure enforceability wherever and whenever disputes arise.Key factors to assuring the enforceability of e-business transactions include the following:
由于电子商务交易并不总是像传统交易那样约束当事人,因此无论何时何地发生纠纷,确保可执行性是很重要的。确保电子商务交易可执行性的关键因素包括:
bind n.窘境;v.捆绑;系;(用长布条)缠绕;(使)联合在一起;结合;
arise v.发生,产生;出现;(由……)引起;(因……)产生;发展;
dispute n.争论;辩论;争端;纠纷;v.对……提出质询;对……表示异议(或怀疑);争论;辩论;争执;争夺;竞争;
manner n.方式;方法;举止;态度;礼貌;礼仪;
enforceability n.可执行性;
in the same manner 以同样的方式
wherever conj.在任何地方;在……的各个地方;各处;处处;在所有……的情况下;adv.(用于问句,表示惊讶)究竟在哪里,究竟到哪儿;
whenever conj.在任何何时;无论何时;在任何……情况下;每当;每次;别的什么时候(也可以);任何时间(都行);adv.(用于问句,表示惊奇)究竟什么时候;
factor n.因素;要素;因子;因数;(增、减的)数量,倍数;v.把……因素包括进去;(数学)分解……的因子;将……分解成因子;以代理商(或管家等)的身份行事;做代理商(或管家)

Legal recognition of trade.A business must ensure there is legal recognition of its trade before it commences a transaction.In such cases,legal initiatives must define the service properly in online contracts.
法律认可的贸易。企业在开始交易前必须确保其交易得到法律承认 。在这种情况下,法律举措必须在在线合同中正确定义服务。 。
recognition n.认出;识别;认识;承认;认可;赞誉;赏识;奖赏;
commence v.开始发生,开始,着手;
contract n.合同,合约;契约;(雇用杀人的)协议;

Valid payment methods.Electronic payments are common in business transactions today,but they must be structured with care to assure that the payment method effectively transfers value to the e-business enterprise or revenue will be lost.
有效的支付方式。电子支付在当今的商业交易中很常见,但必须谨慎地进行结构设计,以确保支付方式有效地将价值转移给电子商务企业,否则将损失收入。
structure v.使形成体系;系统安排;精心组织;n.结构;构造;结构体;(尤指)建筑物;精心组织;周密安排;体系;
transfer n.搬迁;转移;调动;变换;(运动员)转会;(旅行途中的)中转,换乘;改变路线;v.(使)转移,搬迁;(使)调动;转职;转学;改变(环境);转移(感情);传染(疾病);让与;

Valid signatures.Electronic signatures are becoming more acceptable in global transactions,but they can be processed in a variety of ways that may or may not result in a legally binding signature.Legal initiatives must be undertaken to determine the requirements for a valid electronic signature,and in which countries it is valid.
有效的签名。在全球交易中,电子签名越来越被接受,但它们可以以多种方式进行处理,这些方式可能会或不会产生具有法律约束力的签名。必须采取法律行动来确定有效电子签名的要求,以及在哪些国家是有效的。
acceptable adj.可接受的;合意的;令人满意的;
legally adv.法律上,合法地;
binding adj.具有约束力的;
variety n.(同一事物的)不同种类;多种式样;变化;多样化;多变性;(植物、语言等)变种,变体;异体;品种;
undertake v.承担;从事;负责;承诺;允诺;答应;过去分词是:undertaken

Accurate identification.Identification is crucial,since a transaction is only enforceable against the person who entered into it.Counsel will help decide which forms of online identification are acceptable,and how they can be used in forming a legally valid indentification.
准确的识别。身份识别是至关重要的,因为一项交易只能对参与交易的人强制执行。法律顾问将帮助决定哪些形式的在线身份证明是可以接受的,以及如何使用这些形式来形成合法有效的身份证明。
accurate adj.精确的,准确的,正确无误的;
crucial adj.重要的,至关重要的;
against prep.反对;与……相反;逆;违反;对……不利;紧靠;倚;碰;撞;

Proper terms & conditions.An online contract may not be enforceable in some jurisdictions because it fails to meet local requirements or because local consumer protection laws apply.Ensuring that terms and conditions are binding requires an understanding of the legal issues,particularly where the e-business enterprise trades via a third-party site.
适当的条款和条件。在某些司法管辖区,在线合同可能无法执行,因为它不能满足当地的要求,或者因为当地的消费者保护法适用。确保条款和条件具有约束力,需要了解法律问题,特别是电子商务企业通过第三方网站进行交易的情况。
proper adj.正确的;恰当的;符合规则的;真正的;像样的;名副其实的;符合习俗(或体统)的;正当的;规矩的;n.[宗教][常用P-]特定节日等用的仪式;弥撒(祈祷、礼仪等)书的章节;特赞
properly adv.正确地;适当地;得体地;恰当地;符合习俗地;真正地;实际上;
condition n.状态;状况;健康状况;(因不可能治愈而长期患有的)疾病;v.训练;使习惯于;使适应;对…具有重要影响;影响(某事发生的方式);保持(头发或皮肤等的)健康;养护;
contract n.合同,合约;契约;(雇用杀人的)协议;
jurisdiction n.司法权,管辖权,管辖区域;

Adequate documentation.Business customers will require records and invoices that are acceptable to tax and accounting authorities.As these can differ by jurisdiction,organizations should establish compliance procedures upon the advice of counsel.
足够的文档。业务客户将要求税务和会计部门可以接受的记录和发票。由于管辖权的不同,各组织应根据法律顾问的建议建立合规程序。
adequate adj.足够的,充分的,合乎需要的;
documentation n.文件资料,证明文件;
record n.记录;记载;唱片;(尤指体育运动中最高或最低的)记录;v.记录;记载;录制;录音;录像;演奏音乐供录制;灌(唱片);
invoice n.发票,发货单;
authority n.权利;威权;当权(地位);职权;权;批准;授权;
compliance n.一致,服从;遵守;
procedure n.程序,步骤,手续;

play a role in:在……中起作用
play a part in:在……中起作用
take…into account:考虑
at rist:有危险
in the same manner:以同样的方式

Counsel can address risks and vulnerabilities that arise from changes in the technical,business and legal environments.法律顾问可以处理由于技术、商业和法律环境的变化而带来的风险和伤害。
…embracing the legal fundamentals from the outset can strengthen the e-business corporate endeavor:从一开始就考虑到这些基本的法律问题可以使电子商务公司的工作更有成效。
if it should be restructured into a group of companies situated in defferent jurisdictions:是否需要重组成在不同管辖区设立公司的公司集团
cross-ownership:交叉持股,相互持股
In the e-business model,however,amny assets consist of infomation—intangible,but possessing great value nonetheless.然而,在电子商务模式中,许多资产又信息组成,这些信息是无形的,但是具有很大的价值。