Success in the online marketplace is never an assured outcome.As in the brick-and-mortar marketplace,the failure rate for online companies is high.Why do a few online companies succeed while many others fail?What does the entrepreneur—the online entrepreneur—need to know to launch a profitable online business?
网络市场上的成功从来都不是一个有保证的结果。就像在实体市场一样,在线公司的失败率很高。为什么少数在线公司会成功,而多数公司却失败了?企业家——网络企业家——需要知道些什么才能开展一个盈利的网络商务?

Online businesses may be pure play companies(online only) or click-and-mortar companies that add online projects,such as e-procurement or selling online,as addtional market channels.
在线业务可能是仅经营网络业务的公司(仅在网上),也可能是那些添加在线项目的传统商业模式的公司,如电子采购或在线销售,作为附加市场渠道。

Most new businesses—brick-and-mortar,pure play,or click-and-mortar—begin in a similar manner.The process can be described by the following steps.
大多数新企业——传统商业模式的公司、纯粹的网络公司或网络+实体店模式的公司——以类似的方式开始。这个过程可以用下面的步骤来描述。

Step 1:Identify a consumer or business need in the marketplace.Many businesses simply begin with a good idea.A magazine article,a personal observation,an unsolved problem,a small irritation,or a friend’s suggestion may trigger an idea,and the prospective business owner sees a gap between what people want and what is available.For example,both Amazon.com and eBay began this way.
步骤1:在市场中确定消费者或企业需求。许多企业只是从一个好主意开始。杂志上的文章,个人的观察,一个未解决的问题,一个小的刺激,或者一个朋友的建议可能会引发一个想法,而潜在的企业主看到了人们想要的和可用的东西之间的差距。例如,亚马逊和eBay都以这种方式开始。

Step 2:Investigate the opportunity.Just because a person perceives that an opportunity exists does not mean that it is real.Perhaps the number of individuals interested in purchasing the product or service is too small.Perhaps the cost of manufacturing,marketing and distributing the product or providing the service is too large.The revenue model may be wrong,others may have tried already and failed,satisfactory substitute products may be available,and so on.For example,online grocery shopping would seem to be a wonderful opportunity:relieving busy professionals of the time-consuming and tiresome task of regular visits to a grocery sotre.Many large and small-scale online grocery ventures have been tried,but most have failed or continue to lose money because they misjudged the logistical problems associated with grocery warehousing and delivery.This is why it is so important to develop a business plan.One of the purposes of a business plan is to determine the feasibility of a business opportunity in the marketplace.
第二步:调查的机会。仅仅因为一个人认为一个机会存在并不意味着它是真实的。也许对购买产品或服务感兴趣的人太少了。可能是制造、营销和分销产品或提供服务的成本太大。收入模式可能是错误的,其他的可能已经尝试过了,失败了,令人满意的替代产品可能是可用的,等等。例如,网上购物似乎是一个绝好的机会:让忙碌的专业人士去做一件费时费力的事情,定期去杂货店买东西。许多大型和小规模的在线食品杂货店都被尝试过,但大多数都失败了,或者继续亏损,因为他们错误地判断了与食品杂货仓储和配送有关的物流问题。这就是为什么制定一个商业计划如此重要的原因。商业计划的目的之一是确定商业机会在市场中的可行性。

Step 3:Determine the business owner’s ability to meet the need.Assuming(假设,假定) that a realistic(实际的,现实的) business opportunity exists,does the prospective business owner have ability to convert the opportunity into success?Some personal qualities(品质,素质,质量) are important:Is the business in an industry the prospective business owner knows well?Is it something the entrepreneur loves doing?Are family and friends supportive?Business skills in staff(工作人员,管理人员,行政人员) recruitment(招收,招聘),management,negotiation(谈判,磋商,协商),marketing and financial management are required,as well as entrepreneurial attitudes such as innovation(创造,创新,革新,新思想,新方法),risk taking and being proactive(积极主动的).Many good ideas and realistic initiatives(新方案,积极性,主动性,倡议) hava failed in the execution stage because the owners or principals(主要的,本金、资本、主角) of the business lacked(缺乏,没有,短缺) sufficient(足够的,充足的) business skills to make it a reality.Boo.com,for example,seemingly had a great concept(概念,观念)(retailing ultramodern(超现代的),designer clothing) and superior(优越的) software,but it failed because of the inability(无能,无力,无能为力) of management to organize the business and manage the projects necessary to bring Boo.com online before it burned throught $120 million of start-up capital.
第3步:确定业务所有者满足需求的能力。假设一个现实的商业机会存在,那么未来的企业所有者是否有能力将机会转化为成功?一些个人品质是很重要的:业务所有者知道这个行业中将来的业务吗?这是企业家喜欢做的事情吗?家人和朋友都支持你吗?需要在员工招聘、管理、谈判、营销和财务管理方面的商业技能,以及创新、冒险和积极主动等创业态度。在执行阶段,许多好的想法和现实的计划都失败了,因为业务的所有者或负责人缺乏足够的业务技能使其成为现实。例如,Boo.com似乎有一个很好的概念(零售超现代、名牌服装)和优秀的软件,但它失败了,因为管理能力无法组织业务和管理必要的项目,使其在Boo.com上线之前消耗了1亿2000万美元的铺底流动资金(项目投产初期所需,为保证项目建成后进行试运转所必需的流动资金)。